How To Start a Сommercial Turkey Farm in Nigeria
Some farmers are engaged in the сommercial turkey farming in Nigeria. This is a fairly promising and profitable business, from which you can earn decent money. The main advantages of this line of activity are quick payback and high demand for finished products. Here we describe the profitability of breeding turkeys as a business for start-up entrepreneurs.
Breeds of birds
The first thing you should think over before you start your commercial turkey farming is the choice of the breeds. It is better to buy nigerian turkey poults in the farms with a good reputation. You can also buy turkeys from individuals who usually offer poults of a high quality. A properly selected turkey breeds for farming at home is a guarantee of business success. There are meat and egg breeds. Therefore, before buying young poults, you need to determine the goals you want to achieve. There are turkeys that have been bred for meat, selling of eggs, and selling of young poults.
The most popular breeds of turkeys for domestic breeding are Broad-Chested Whites, Standard Bronze and White, White Hollands etc. More often in the poultry farms, there are broad-chested white turkeys bred in the USA. This kind of meat breed is characterized by high egg production and rapid growth.
Profitability of Nigerian turkey poults farming
First of all, we would like to note that breeding nigerian turkey poults at home as a business is a very profitable endeavour. Undoubtedly, it will require certain financial investments, but all initial investments can be returned in just one season. To get a good profit, you need to make a clear business plan for breeding turkeys. You should strictly adhere to all of its points.
The adult male weighs an average of 23 kg. The weight of the female is about 10 kg. If you buy a turkey in the spring, over the summer, they will gain marketable weight, and part of the herd can be sent to slaughter. The rest of the birds are needed to form a parent herd.
If you take a look at the video of breeding turkeys as a business, you can see that the turkeys are very sensitive to their offspring. They try to incubate their eggs themselves and take care of the poults carefully. Therefore, if economic opportunities do not allow you to purchase an incubator, do not be upset. To form a herd at the beginning, the majority of farmers use females. When the business starts to bring a good profit, you can purchase an incubator and start producing young poults for sale. In any case, put the purchase of an incubator in the business plan of breeding turkeys for beginners. Otherwise, you will miss a good profit. If you arrange the conveyor production of young poults, it is possible to get 600 kg of dietary meat from one female per year. You should allocate a separate place for the incubator and the rearing of young nigerian turkey poults.
Conditions for keeping birds on the turkey farm
To save on fodder and veterinary services and for the maintenance and breeding of turkeys, you will need a spacious paddock. It must be equipped with cereals or herbs. Note that turkey grows better in freedom, so if you have your own land on which you have a lot of space and pasture, breeding turkeys as a business will be more profitable. You need one acre of fenced land to raise 200-250 adult free roaming nigerian turkey poults.
If the turkeys are free, they can choose a diet themselves. In addition to grain, they will eat different insects that provide the body with the necessary microelements and proteins. Females living in free conditions can provide up to 200 eggs per season. For the breeding and maintenance of turkeys, no special conditions will be required.
If you are interested in breeding and taking care of turkeys at home, you should remember that you have to invest a lot of energy and time. It allows you to ensure the maximum revenue from the sale of finished products. The most important thing is a responsible approach to this business.
The basis of the diet for nigerian turkey poults, like any other poultry, is grain. It is advisable to give them millet or oats. Also, you can add soy and other legumes to the food. Do not forget to include greens into the diet. For this purpose, you should prepare the grass on the area where you plan to make pasture for the birds.
If you want to get 4 kg of meat from each turkey in 8.5 weeks, you will need 6 kg of food during this time. During this period, the turkey exceeds any other poultry in growth.
To get healthy offspring, you need to add Vitamin E and ordinary chalk to the turkeys’ diet. If you do this, you will significantly reduce the percentage of nonviable poults. The average mortality rate of a turkey is six to ten per cent.
Another important point is a strict feeding regimen. Nigerian turkey poults need to be fed at the same time. Young poults up to 1.5 months of age are fed seven times a day. Gradually, the number of feeds is reduced to four times a day. Also, you must give fodder in feeders and not on the ground. Besides, turkeys require clean water supply all the time.
Also, do not forget about the vaccination of the birds. It protects the turkeys from diseases that can lead to the complete extinction of the herd.
Financial investments and sales markets
Typically, the poultry production at home for beginners starts with the purchase of young nigerian turkey poults. If you want to begin such a business with a minimum capital investment, you can buy one-day turkeys. It costs about 7,000 – 10,000 naira (450 – 700 naira each). The cost of feeding to maturity (26 weeks) is about 40,800 naira (2,040 naira for each poult).
With proper care and observance of all rules for keeping and breeding turkeys in the household farm, the weight of one adult will be about 15 kg. Half of the herd can be sent for slaughter.
It’s not difficult to sell meat because such product is always in high demand. The rest of the birds, as mentioned above, should be left to form a parent herd. It is desirable to equip the paddock for turkeys to reduce the cost of vitamins and feed. The biggest expense item is the building of a poultry house. For 20 turkeys you need a room with a space of 40 square meters.
The turkey farm begins to make a profit in 4-6 months. By this age, turkeys gain weight of about 15 kg.
In the future, you do not have to spend money to buy young poults. One turkey female can produce 10-15 poults. If they grow up, you can sell them and get a good profit. As the offspring brings several females, breeding turkeys at home in Nigeria provides you with a decent income. If you plan to expand your business, you have to build new poultry houses in the future. That’s why you should take care of a large plot of land for your home farm in advance.
Farmers who grow turkeys can profit from the sale of poults, meat, and eggs especially during festive periods, such as Christmas, Easter and Muslim feasts.
The turkey meat can be delivered in bulk to shops or sold on the market in whole carcasses or cut in pieces. One kg of frozen turkey costs 2,100 – 2,200 naira. Live adult turkey price in Nigeria is 17,000 – 18,000 naira. Moreover, such products can be delivered to restaurants and other catering establishments. Hatched eggs and daily turkeys can be sold to beginner farmers and private individuals.
Benefits and disadvantages of the business
Like any other business, turkey breeding has its benefits and disadvantages. Let’s look at the pros and cons of this business in details.
Benefits Of Raising Nigerian Turkey Poults
• Farmers who grow turkeys receive not only profit but also fresh dietary meat.
• Turkey eggs have excellent taste qualities.
• Growing turkeys is a lucrative business that quickly pays off and brings a real income.
• Turkey meat is more expensive than chicken.
• Turkeys do not require special conditions as shelter.
• This bird is simple to feed. It can eat the pasture grass and insects.
• High mortality of young poults
• Additional costs for vaccination
• Low egg production
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