Practical application of pawpaw in poultry farming, the main focus is on poultry, mainly broilers, layers & turkeys.
This article is intended for farmers who seeks enlightenment on the medical & nutritional uses of Pawpaw and its constituents in Poultry health & nutrition management, backed by Stonebridge ranch & farms personal use & experience/experiments amidst the wonderful works done by some scientists who will be duly acknowledged.
1. PAWPAW LEAF:
* Pawpaw Leaf as Feed Grade Coccidiostat
The leaves are dried under a shade so that they do not lose all their healing properties to the hot sun. it is added at 15% to the feed.
This increases the palatability of the feeds due to the presence of Vitamin A (Carotene) and helps growth performance, while at the same time accelerate the healing of the lesions (ulcers) or perforated intestines that were damaged by Elmeria spp, the organisms that causes Coccidiosis. Vitamin A and Vitamin K are the needed vitamins in most anticoccidial synthetic drugs.
Even if Coccidioisis is cured and the intestines are not healed, other bacteria can infect them and cause Necrotic Enteritis, which is another huge economic disaster because it makes the feed consumed to be poorly ingested, makes the birds sick & lethargic and consequently mortalities abound. Some enzymes in Pawpaw leaf (Papain, Chymopapain and Lysozyme) break down proteins and this is good because worms & protozoans like most parasites are largely made up of proteins.
Hence Papain, together with an enzyme in the pancreas ingests them while the Vitamin A protects the intestine thereby reducing the multiplying reproductive ability of the coccidiosis organism.
* Pawpaw Leaf as Protein Ingredient in Broiler Finisher
Pawpaw Leaf is air-dried for 2 days and then taken to a room or shade where the temperature is between 30°C-40°C for another 2-3 days. Thereafter, it becomes crispy despite still being greenish. It is crushed to become Pawpaw Leaf Meal (PLM) to partly replace Groundnut Cake (GNC) at 2% dietary level in Broiler Finisher Mash.
This is because it has a high Crude Protein of 30.12%; an excellent but cheap source of protein especially with the recent upsurge in prices of feeds and feed ingredients. Also, It has a low Crude Fibre of 5.60% which is a good indication that it would be very good for poultry birds since they have a very minimal capacity to digest fibre. Combined with Papain contained in the PLM which aids proper digestion of proteins and cleanses the
digestive tract, PLM improves growth performance, reduce cost and increases profit.
In Broiler Finisher, it can be included at a maximum of 2% level. The carcass quality, taste and meat yield of broilers fed PLM is always impressive, tastier and larger. Meat tenderness is another plus when PLM is used because Papain makes meat very tender. PLM contains oxycarotenoids which makes the meat beautiful, sweeter and yellowish.
Lastly, there is a massive production of white blood cells which helps to boost the immunity and ability to perform well under stress conditions of birds fed PLM. All these combined ensures the farmer gets a better profit margin & better returns due to the evidence of lower feed cost per kg of body weight gained or eggs produced.
2. Pawpaw Seed as Anthelmintic
As earlier posited, Pawpaw seeds are efficacious anthelmintic or dewormers. It can be used either in powdery or aqueous extract from. The fresh seeds of ripe pawpaw fruits are collected and washed in clean water to remove the pulp linings and dirt. The seeds are sun dried and ground into powdery form, Pawpaw Seed Powder (PSP).
To produce the Pawpaw Seed Aqueous Extract (PSAE), the gram of the powder to be used should be put into double its volume in water. For example, 75ml of the powder is to 150ml of distilled water , 80ml of PSP to 160ml of distilled water, etc. This mixture is properly blended. If a centrifuge is available, you can use it at 1500 rpm after blending but if it isn’t, they you can allow the solution to run in the blender for a few minutes. The solution is then filtered through a sterile filter paper or clean cloth sieve. Voila! You have your Pawpaw Seed Aqueous Extract (PSAE) ready.
You administer 1ml of it per 10ml of water for 3 days, and repeat in two weeks time, and thereafter repeated in another two weeks again. On the other side, if the powder is being used, it should be used as feed additive at 300mg per day for 3 days, then repeated after 2 weeks and again after another 2 weeks just like PSAE. PSAE works more effectively and faster than PSP as can be seen from the amazing reduction of faecal egg counts & improvement in the blood of the birds through tests. This is because PSAE goes direct to the gastrointestinal tract where the worms are located unlike in PSP where birds may not pick all the needed dosage since it was used as a feed addictive. In both, Papain is at work here digesting bacteria and parasitic cells through their proteins.
Benzyl isothiocynate is also effective here as deworming organic chemical compound.
MUST READ: IMPORTANCE OF PAWPAW IN POULTRY FARMING
3. Pawpaw Latex as Anthelmintic
The Pawpaw tree has a milky juice, also known as Pawpaw Latex which is seen when incisions are made on the unripe fruits while still attached to the tree, from the leaves and the stem. This Latex is a very effective deworming substance; it stops the infecting ability of the worms’ eggs , such that they cannot cause more harm.
To create Pawpaw Latex Extract (PLE), make 4 incisions on the unripe fruits still attached to the tree. Collect the latex in a container. Naturally, it will begin to coagulate. The latex can be dried under the sun or inside an oven at 40°C in temperature for 14-15 hrs. When the latex is caked, it is crushed or processed into slightly grey powder. This is Papain.
It will be mixed with 20% of their water and administered at 400mg per bird for three days. That’s
1,200mg per bird within a three day-treatment. This is effective against worms especially Ascardia galli and Capillaria spp which are major worms affecting poultry birds.
A test of faecal sample analysis/egg count carried out after a week of treatment by Adu et al showed that it reduced eggs per gram faeces by 77.7%. This confirmed the efficacy of PLE. Again, Papain and Benzyl isothiocynate are the major deworming component here!
These are some of the ways we have applied Pawpaw in our farm (Stonebridge Ranch & Farms), and we
are still doing some experimentations which would be published once the results are
confirmed to be of use to the livestock farmer.